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對市政工程給水排水施工管理探討

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對市政工程給水排水施工管理探討

發布日期:2016-06-24 00:00 來源:http://gladdchina.cn 點擊:

     1、市政管網給水排水管道應用現狀分析 

   市政(zheng)工程使用(yong)的管(guan)道,根據管(guan)道材質不同可分為:鋼管(guan)、鑄鐵(tie)管(guan)、混凝土(tu)管(guan)和(he)鋼筋(jin)混凝土(tu)管(guan)、塑料(liao)管(guan)(包括鋼塑復合管(guan))四大類。 

   (1)鋼(gang)管:鋼(gang)管一般分為灰口鑄鐵管和焊接(jie)鋼(gang)管。 

   (2)鑄(zhu)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)管(guan):鑄(zhu)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)管(guan)按材質(zhi)可(ke)分為(wei)鑄(zhu)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)管(guan)(亦稱(cheng)普通鑄(zhu)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)管(guan))和延(yan)性鑄(zhu)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)管(guan)(亦稱(cheng)球墨鑄(zhu)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)管(guan))。 

   (3)混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝(ning)(ning)土(tu)管(guan):混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝(ning)(ning)土(tu)管(guan)一般分(fen)為預(yu)應(ying)(ying)力鋼(gang)筋混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝(ning)(ning)土(tu)管(guan)(PCP)、自應(ying)(ying)力鋼(gang)筋混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝(ning)(ning)土(tu)管(guan)(SPCP)、預(yu)應(ying)(ying)力鋼(gang)筒混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝(ning)(ning)土(tu)管(guan)(PC-CP)、混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝(ning)(ning)土(tu)管(guan)(GP)和鋼(gang)筋混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝(ning)(ning)土(tu)管(guan)(RCP)。 

   (4)塑料(liao)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan):塑料(liao)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)一般分為硬(ying)質聚氯乙(yi)烯管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(PVC-U)、聚乙(yi)烯管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(PE)、玻璃鋼(gang)(gang)夾砂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(FRP)等(deng)。目前,我國市政管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)道品種多樣(yang),改(gai)變了以(yi)往(wang)只用混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝土(tu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)和(he)鋼(gang)(gang)筋(jin)(jin)混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝土(tu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、灰口(kou)鑄鐵管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)和(he)鋼(gang)(gang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)等(deng)少(shao)數幾種管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)道的局面,如城市供水管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan):管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)徑(jing)小于(yu)600 mm的有灰口(kou)鑄鐵管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、球墨(mo)鑄鐵管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、自應力鋼(gang)(gang)筋(jin)(jin)混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝土(tu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、鋼(gang)(gang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、PVC-U管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、PE管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)等(deng);管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)徑(jing)在600 ram~1 200 ram的有預應力鋼(gang)(gang)筋(jin)(jin)混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝土(tu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、預應力鋼(gang)(gang)筒(tong)混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝土(tu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、球墨(mo)鑄鐵管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、鋼(gang)(gang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、FRP管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)等(deng);管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)徑(jing)在1 200 mm以(yi)上的有預應力混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝土(tu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、預應力鋼(gang)(gang)筒(tong)混(hun)(hun)(hun)凝土(tu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、FRP管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)和(he)鋼(gang)(gang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)等(deng)。近十幾年來(lai),隨著塑 

   料管(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)原料合成生產、管(guan)(guan)材管(guan)(guan)件制造技(ji)術、設計理論和(he)施工技(ji)術等方面的(de)(de) 發展 和(he)完善(shan),使塑料管(guan)(guan)在市政管(guan)(guan)道工程中(zhong)占據了(le)相當重要的(de)(de)地位。 

   2、市政管網工程施工管理方法和措(cuo)施 

   (1)施工(gong)期(qi)間(jian)到各施工(gong)單位(wei)施工(gong)現場檢查(cha)指導,杜(du)絕(jue)違章作業。 

   (2)監督檢查各(ge)施(shi)工(gong)單位(wei)安(an)(an)全(quan)管理機構能(neng)否正(zheng)常開展工(gong)作,施(shi)工(gong)前安(an)(an)全(quan) 教(jiao)育 以及施(shi)工(gong)中各(ge)項(xiang)安(an)(an)全(quan)措施(shi)是否已(yi)經全(quan)部落實。 

   (3)各施(shi)(shi)工(gong)單(dan)位(wei)開(kai)挖管溝需(xu)要(yao)斷路時,應提前上(shang)報總承包單(dan)位(wei),總承包單(dan)位(wei)應根據施(shi)(shi)工(gong)道路布置(zhi)條件,統一安排在同(tong)一時間(jian)內、同(tong)一條道路上(shang),幾個(ge)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)單(dan)位(wei)在若干(gan)處開(kai)挖管溝施(shi)(shi)工(gong)并恢復(fu)道路 交通 。 

   (4)涼水塔(ta)安裝施工(gong)要以(yi)防(fang)火(huo)工(gong)作為重(zhong)點(dian),合(he)理安排(pai)施工(gong)順序(xu)。使(shi)用(yong)電動工(gong)具時,對(dui)導線絕緣性和(he)工(gong)具安全(quan)性進行檢查,以(yi)防(fang)止電火(huo)花引(yin)起(qi)火(huo)災。 

   (5)總承包單位統一(yi)規(gui)劃埋設臨時施工用水管(guan)網,管(guan)線(xian)埋設在冰凍線(xian)以下,在施工用水主管(guan)網每(mei)100 ram長度內應設置消(xiao)火栓1個。 

   3、作業(ye)指(zhi)導書的管理與編制 

   施工組織專(zhuan)業(ye)設計(ji)(或(huo)單位分部(分項(xiang))工程施工組織設計(ji))是將施工組織總設計(ji)中有關內容具體化。 

   3.1審批制(zhi)度 

   工(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)前,施(shi)工(gong)單(dan)位應將編制好的施(shi)工(gong)組(zu)織專(zhuan)業設(she)計(ji)或施(shi)工(gong)方案(an)經(jing)單(dan)位技(ji)術負責人審批后,填寫施(shi)工(gong)組(zu)織專(zhuan)業設(she)計(ji)報(bao)審表提交工(gong)程(cheng)部、質監站和監理部會審。 

   3.2技術交底(di)與圖紙會(hui)審制度 

   依據(ju)行(xing)業有(you)關(guan)設(she)計監理的(de)規定,為把好工程設(she)計圖(tu)紙(zhi)(zhi)關(guan),減少圖(tu)紙(zhi)(zhi)的(de)差錯,將圖(tu)紙(zhi)(zhi)中(zhong)的(de)質量隱患消滅在(zai)施工前,設(she)計監理工程師(shi)在(zai)收到(dao)正式施工圖(tu)紙(zhi)(zhi)后,分專業對(dui)施工圖(tu)紙(zhi)(zhi)進行(xing)詳細閱審,并提出(chu)書(shu)面(mian)意見。 

   (1)圖(tu)紙(zhi)會(hui)審(shen)(shen)(shen)。監(jian)理(li)工程師(shi)以施工圖(tu)分冊為單(dan)位,由(you)設(she)計、土建施工和安裝監(jian)理(li)工程師(shi)對與該分冊有關(guan)的(de)圖(tu)紙(zhi)進行內部(bu)閱審(shen)(shen)(shen),閱審(shen)(shen)(shen)結果填寫(xie)“閱審(shen)(shen)(shen)記錄單(dan)”由(you)監(jian)理(li)部(bu)簽發(重要分冊的(de)圖(tu)紙(zhi)“閱審(shen)(shen)(shen)記錄單(dan)”需經項目副總監(jian)或總監(jian)簽發),送(song)交(jiao)工程部(bu)及(ji)有關(guan)參加審(shen)(shen)(shen)查圖(tu)紙(zhi)的(de)單(dan)位。 

   施(shi)工(gong)單(dan)(dan)位在收(shou)到施(shi)工(gong)圖(tu)紙(zhi)后,現場公(gong)司技術(shu)負責人(ren)(ren)組織(zhi)該項(xiang)目相關專業工(gong)程技術(shu)人(ren)(ren)員閱(yue)審圖(tu)紙(zhi),提(ti)出問題清單(dan)(dan)。 

   土(tu)建工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)與安(an)(an)裝(zhuang)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)有(you)交接的圖紙先由(you)土(tu)建與安(an)(an)裝(zhuang)單位(wei)(wei)分別(bie)進行各自圖紙審核,后應由(you)土(tu)建監(jian)(jian)(jian)理組織對施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)圖紙進行聯合會審,參加人(ren)員為土(tu)建施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)單位(wei)(wei)、安(an)(an)裝(zhuang)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)單位(wei)(wei)、土(tu)建監(jian)(jian)(jian)理、安(an)(an)裝(zhuang)監(jian)(jian)(jian)理、設計代表、質監(jian)(jian)(jian)站(zhan)、工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)部

   (2)設(she)計交底。技(ji)術交底與(yu)圖紙會審時,設(she)計單位必(bi)須派(pai)該項目主要設(she)計人(ren)或了解設(she)計情況的工地代表(biao)出席,開工前在施工現場進行。 

   (3)設計(ji)交(jiao)底與圖(tu)紙會審(shen)的程(cheng)序。設計(ji)交(jiao)底與圖(tu)紙會審(shen)會由設計(ji)監理主持。工程(cheng)部、計(ji)劃(hua)部、物資部、質監站(zhan)、設計(ji)單(dan)位(wei)、施(shi)工單(dan)位(wei),特(te)別是施(shi)工單(dan)位(wei)的工地(di)、班(ban)組直(zhi)接參加施(shi)工的技術人(ren)員必(bi)須親自(zi)參加,以便全面了解設計(ji)意(yi)圖(tu)并審(shen)查其可操作性(xing)4試驗與驗收管(guan)理 

   5、工(gong)(gong)程施工(gong)(gong)后期總承包單(dan)位應(ying)邀(yao)請建設單(dan)位有(you)關人員積極參與工(gong)(gong)程收尾工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)。 

   (1)碳鋼金(jin)屬管(guan)道在分段(duan)進(jin)行強度(du)、嚴密(mi)性試驗(yan)合格后,管(guan)段(duan)與管(guan)段(duan)相互(hu)聯結(jie)的焊(han)口和管(guan)段(duan)與管(guan)網聯結(jie)的焊(han)口,在無法做強度(du)、嚴密(mi)性試驗(yan)時,必須進(jin)行焊(han)縫無損探(tan)傷檢驗(yan),以確(que)保聯結(jie)焊(han)口的質(zhi)量(liang)。 

   (2)鑄鐵管(guan)(guan)道與非金屬管(guan)(guan)道試驗時(shi),各施工(gong)單位在各自施工(gong)區分界(jie)線附(fu)近(jin)井(jing)下臨時(shi)封(feng)閉管(guan)(guan)口(kou)(kou),首先(xian)從排水管(guan)(guan)網(wang)(wang)中管(guan)(guan)底標高最高處井(jing)口(kou)(kou)注(zhu)入水。打開相鄰(lin)施工(gong)單位分界(jie)處井(jing)下被封(feng)閉的(de)管(guan)(guan)口(kou)(kou),使上游管(guan)(guan)段中的(de)水向(xiang)下游管(guan)(guan)段排放。直到(dao)排水管(guan)(guan)網(wang)(wang)全(quan)部試驗合格為止。    

   (3)各施工單位在管線試驗期間,應設專(zhuan)職人員設置、記錄(lu)和拆(chai)除管線臨時盲板。 

   (4)供(gong)水(shui)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)和循(xun)環水(shui)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)管(guan)網水(shui)沖洗(xi),應與供(gong)水(shui)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)、循(xun)環水(shui)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)各種水(shui)泵試(shi)運轉相結合,使(shi)兩項工(gong)作同(tong)時進行。 

   (5)排(pai)水(shui)管線沖洗時,在注水(shui)的排(pai)水(shui)井壁(bi)與井底水(shui)流沖擊(ji)處用鍍鋅(xin)鐵皮(pi)做好(hao)防護。 

   (6)循環(huan)水管(guan)道的大(da)口徑(jing)管(guan)段,在進行人工(gong)處理時,必須要(yao)有相應的安全保(bao)護措施,并(bing)且不允(yun)許單人進入管(guan)道。 

   5、市(shi)政排水管應用趨勢分析(xi) 

   未(wei)來市政排水管應(ying)用趨勢(shi)將呈現以下幾個特(te)點: 

  (1)往柔(rou)性接(jie)口(kou)型(xing)式 發(fa)(fa)展(zhan) 。隨(sui)著社會(hui)的發(fa)(fa)展(zhan),用平口(kou)管(guan)安裝成管(guan)道,用水(shui)泥(ni)砂漿封(feng)縫或用套(tao)環連接(jie)防止污水(shui)外(wai)溢,必將被淘汰。未來發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)趨勢(shi)是使用柔(rou)性結合的承接(jie)口(kou)式排水(shui)管(guan)。 

   (2)大口(kou)徑、多品種化(hua)發展趨勢。自離(li)心工藝(yi)的最大管徑2 000 mm企口(kou)管誕生后,目前可生產到2 800 ram。生產3000 mmF型大口(kou)徑鋼筋混凝(ning)土(tu)管也成為可能,未來越來越多的直徑2 000 mm以上排(pai)水(shui)管都將被(bei)采用。 

   (3)低壓(ya)力排(pai)(pai)水(shui)管發(fa)展趨勢。帶低壓(ya)運行的(de)排(pai)(pai)水(shui)管不僅是設計需要,而且(qie)可以減少內壁腐蝕(shi)的(de)出現。低壓(ya)排(pai)(pai)水(shui)管可以用壓(ya)力管的(de)生(sheng)產工藝來生(sheng)產。綜合成本(ben)與排(pai)(pai)水(shui)管同比接近。 

   (4)市政管網綠色(se)混凝(ning)(ning)(ning)土(tu)管發展趨勢。在排(pai)水管的混凝(ning)(ning)(ning)土(tu)中可以應用很多有利于環保的 工業(ye) 廢料,從而促進綠色(se)混凝(ning)(ning)(ning)土(tu)在排(pai)水管材中的應用。 

   (5)高(gao)耐久性方(fang)向發(fa)展(zhan)趨(qu)勢。我國(guo)使用排水(shui)(shui)管(guan)時間不(bu)長,在(zai)其設計壽命的(de)(de)(de)(de)驗(yan)證方(fang)面(mian)尚缺少數據,但(dan)污水(shui)(shui)對混凝(ning)(ning)土管(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)腐(fu)蝕是(shi)一(yi)個不(bu)爭的(de)(de)(de)(de)事實。不(bu)僅僅是(shi)排放有腐(fu)蝕介質的(de)(de)(de)(de)管(guan)道,普(pu)通(tong)生(sheng)活污水(shui)(shui)管(guan)也(ye)存在(zai)腐(fu)蝕問題(ti),而耐腐(fu)蝕管(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)產技術(shu)關鍵是(shi)突破以往(wang)水(shui)(shui)泥作為混凝(ning)(ning)土膠凝(ning)(ning)材料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)觀(guan)念(nian),通(tong)過(guo)摻合料(liao)來改變混凝(ning)(ning)土的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)成(cheng)產物(wu)從而達到(dao)耐腐(fu)蝕的(de)(de)(de)(de)目的(de)(de)(de)(de)。這種排水(shui)(shui)管(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)應用將進一(yi)步拓廣(guang)排水(shui)(shui)管(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)應用領(ling)域。 

   6、結束語 

   綜(zong)上所述,市政管(guan)網給排(pai)水系統(tong)的大部分管(guan)網是埋在地(di)下的,一旦出現問(wen)(wen)題將會影響正常(chang)生產,甚至(zhi)造(zao)成火(huo)災、爆(bao)炸事故,而且發現問(wen)(wen)題與解決問(wen)(wen)題需要(yao)較(jiao)長時(shi)間(jian)。因此,給排(pai)水工程(cheng)在施工過(guo)程(cheng)中,管(guan)理十分重要(yao)。 


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