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簡述市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!

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簡述市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!

發布日期:2016-04-14 10:28 來源:http://gladdchina.cn 點擊:

市政管網簡述市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!


市政給排水管線施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)涉及的(de)(de)因素(su)比較復雜,要處理好施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)各種城市生(sheng)活(huo)的(de)(de)和(he)諧進(jin)行,管道工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)要做到(dao)盡(jin)量程度(du)的(de)(de)減少(shao)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)對居(ju)民生(sheng)活(huo)、交通、工(gong)(gong)(gong)作的(de)(de)影響。

一、市政(zheng)給排水管線(xian)工(gong)程施工(gong)要(yao)點

施(shi)工(gong)方(fang)案對不同(tong)(tong)(tong)的管(guan)線、管(guan)質(zhi)、管(guan)型和(he)(he)不同(tong)(tong)(tong)的路段其側重點有所不同(tong)(tong)(tong)。市政管(guan)網(wang)針對不同(tong)(tong)(tong)路段,不同(tong)(tong)(tong)的地質(zhi)和(he)(he)環境情(qing)況,應該制(zhi)訂不同(tong)(tong)(tong)的施(shi)工(gong)方(fang)案。市政給(gei)排水管(guan)線施(shi)工(gong)存在以下幾種情(qing)形:

(一(yi))開挖施工。市政(zheng)管(guan)道(dao)穿越市政(zheng)各種建筑物,為(wei)避免(mian)不必要(yao)的麻煩,大(da)多(duo)沿路(lu)鋪設。在非(fei)主干道(dao)或路(lu)邊(bian)不大(da)影響交通的情況(kuang)下可采用明挖施工。

(二)頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)工(gong)。市(shi)政管(guan)(guan)(guan)道在(zai)跨路施(shi)工(gong)開(kai)挖(wa)存(cun)在(zai)影響交通等各方面(mian)困難時,頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)工(gong)是一種可行(xing)的方案選擇(ze)。頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)工(gong)從考慮(lv)人員(yuan)在(zai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)道內施(shi)工(gong)作業考慮(lv),管(guan)(guan)(guan)徑一般在(zai)0.8m以上,有鋼管(guan)(guan)(guan)和水泥管(guan)(guan)(guan)兩種管(guan)(guan)(guan)型(xing),市(shi)政排污管(guan)(guan)(guan)多(duo)用(yong)水泥管(guan)(guan)(guan),自來水和煤氣管(guan)(guan)(guan)道多(duo)用(yong)鋼管(guan)(guan)(guan)。

二、頂管施工(gong)技術

頂(ding)管法施(shi)(shi)工(gong)方法經常用(yong)(yong)于(yu)城(cheng)市市政管道的(de)(de)建設中(zhong),使用(yong)(yong)該方法占地面積少(shao),施(shi)(shi)工(gong)控制嚴格,可保證交通(tong)暢通(tong);在穿(chuan)越鐵路、公路、河流、建筑物等障(zhang)礙物時可減少(shao)沿(yan)線的(de)(de)拆遷工(gong)作量(liang),降低工(gong)程造價。因此,對(dui)頂(ding)管施(shi)(shi)工(gong)技術及其(qi)引(yin)起的(de)(de)環境效應進行深入分(fen)析、探求解決對(dui)策具有重要的(de)(de)實際意義。

(一(yi))頂管施工的基本原理:

頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)就(jiu)是(shi)借助于主(zhu)頂(ding)(ding)油缸(gang)以及中(zhong)(zhong)繼(ji)間的(de)(de)頂(ding)(ding)進力(li)(li),把(ba)工(gong)(gong)(gong)具管(guan)(guan)(guan)或(huo)頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)掘(jue)(jue)進機從工(gong)(gong)(gong)作坑內穿過土(tu)層(ceng)一(yi)(yi)直頂(ding)(ding)進到接收坑內吊起(qi)。與此(ci)同(tong)時,把(ba)緊(jin)隨在(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)具管(guan)(guan)(guan)或(huo)掘(jue)(jue)進機后的(de)(de)管(guan)(guan)(guan)道埋設(she)在(zai)兩個工(gong)(gong)(gong)作坑之間。在(zai)頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)主(zhu)要(yao)有(you)三種工(gong)(gong)(gong)作面(mian)平(ping)衡(heng)理論(lun):氣壓(ya)(ya)(ya)、土(tu)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)和(he)(he)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡(heng)理論(lun)。本文(wen)主(zhu)要(yao)介(jie)紹泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡(heng)頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)法(fa)。泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡(heng)頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作原理:通常把(ba)用水(shui)(shui)(shui)力(li)(li)切削泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)土(tu),采用機械切削泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)土(tu)而采用水(shui)(shui)(shui)力(li)(li)輸(shu)送(song)棄土(tu),同(tong)時有(you)的(de)(de)利用泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)來平(ping)衡(heng)地下水(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)和(he)(he)土(tu)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)這(zhe)(zhe)一(yi)(yi)類頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)形(xing)式都(dou)稱為泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡(heng)頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)。在(zai)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡(heng)頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong),要(yao)使挖(wa)掘(jue)(jue)面(mian)上(shang)(shang)保持穩定(ding),就(jiu)必須在(zai)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)倉中(zhong)(zhong)充滿一(yi)(yi)定(ding)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui),泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)在(zai)挖(wa)掘(jue)(jue)面(mian)上(shang)(shang)可以形(xing)成一(yi)(yi)層(ceng)不透水(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)(de)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)膜(mo),以阻(zu)止(zhi)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)向(xiang)挖(wa)掘(jue)(jue)面(mian)里滲透。同(tong)時,該泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)本身又有(you)一(yi)(yi)定(ding)的(de)(de)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li),因此(ci)它就(jiu)可以用來平(ping)衡(heng)地下水(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)和(he)(he)土(tu)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li),這(zhe)(zhe)就(jiu)是(shi)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡(heng)頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)最基本的(de)(de)原理。

(二)頂管掘(jue)進機(ji)。

頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)前(qian)(qian)面(mian)切(qie)割面(mian)安裝有(you)合(he)金滾(gun)動(dong)(dong)滾(gun)刀(dao)(dao)及固定刮刀(dao)(dao),刀(dao)(dao)座和(he)刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)焊接采用(yong)耐磨(mo)焊條。市政管(guan)(guan)網滾(gun)刀(dao)(dao)及刮刀(dao)(dao)在刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)的(de)(de)4把刀(dao)(dao)桿上的(de)(de)布置(zhi)是(shi)全(quan)段面(mian)切(qie)割布置(zhi),刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)每轉(zhuan)動(dong)(dong)一周,滾(gun)刀(dao)(dao)和(he)刮刀(dao)(dao)對(dui)前(qian)(qian)面(mian)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)是(shi)全(quan)段面(mian)的(de)(de)滾(gun)動(dong)(dong)和(he)刮動(dong)(dong)。頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)在主(zhu)頂(ding)裝置(zhi)的(de)(de)推動(dong)(dong)下,刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)上的(de)(de)滾(gun)刀(dao)(dao)刀(dao)(dao)尖對(dui)前(qian)(qian)面(mian)堅硬(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)進(jin)行滾(gun)動(dong)(dong)擠(ji)壓,致使(shi)堅硬(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)破(po)(po)裂;刮刀(dao)(dao)對(dui)破(po)(po)裂的(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)進(jin)行切(qie)割,掏空前(qian)(qian)方土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti),使(shi)頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)向前(qian)(qian)推進(jin)。頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)和(he)泥(ni)(ni)土(tu)(tu)倉(cang)是(shi)個多棱(leng)體(ti)(ti),且刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)是(shi)圍(wei)繞主(zhu)軸作偏心轉(zhuan)動(dong)(dong),經過刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)對(dui)前(qian)(qian)方土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)切(qie)割,當有(you)大塊(kuai)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)或塊(kuai)石進(jin)入頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)泥(ni)(ni)土(tu)(tu)倉(cang),經刀(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)轉(zhuan)動(dong)(dong)時(shi)就(jiu)會被(bei)軋碎,碎塊(kuai)泥(ni)(ni)土(tu)(tu)小(xiao)于頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)隔柵孔(kong)就(jiu)進(jin)入泥(ni)(ni)水倉(cang)被(bei)泥(ni)(ni)水循環管(guan)(guan)輸(shu)送走。

(三)主要(yao)施(shi)工技術措施(shi)

1.泥(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)減(jian)阻。用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)泥(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)減(jian)阻是長距離頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)減(jian)少摩阻力的(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)環節之(zhi)一。在(zai)頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)工前,先用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)水(shui)(shui)潤(run)(run)濕混凝土管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)材(cai),然后(hou)(hou)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)黃(huang)油或機油外涂。在(zai)頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)工過程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong),如果(guo)注(zhu)入的(de)(de)(de)潤(run)(run)滑泥(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)在(zai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)外圍形成一個比較(jiao)完整的(de)(de)(de)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)套,則其減(jian)磨效(xiao)果(guo)將(jiang)(jiang)是十分令人(ren)滿意的(de)(de)(de),補漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)一般布置(zhi)于中(zhong)(zhong)繼環后(hou)(hou)面第二節管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)段及(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)斷環與工具頭及(ji)后(hou)(hou)座(zuo)中(zhong)(zhong)間的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置(zhi),注(zhu)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)孔按(an)120°設置(zhi)。頂進結(jie)束(shu),對已形成的(de)(de)(de)泥(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)套的(de)(de)(de)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)液進行置(zhi)換(huan),置(zhi)換(huan)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)液為水(shui)(shui)泥(ni)(ni)砂漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)并(bing)摻入適(shi)量的(de)(de)(de)粉(fen)煤灰,在(zai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)內(nei)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)單螺桿(gan)泵壓(ya)住。壓(ya)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)體(ti)凝結(jie)后(hou)(hou)(一般為24h)拆(chai)除(chu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)路換(huan)上封(feng)蓋,將(jiang)(jiang)孔口用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)環氧水(shui)(shui)泥(ni)(ni)封(feng)堵(du)抹(mo)平。潤(run)(run)滑泥(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)壓(ya)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)泵通過總(zong)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、支管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、球閥、管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)節上的(de)(de)(de)預留(liu)注(zhu)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)孔壓(ya)到管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)與外管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)土體(ti)之(zhi)間,包(bao)住下班鋼(gang)夾砂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)。

2.偏心(xin)破碎(sui)(sui)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進技術(shu)。施工(gong)(gong)開始(shi)時(shi)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進工(gong)(gong)具頭(tou)(進洞),由千斤頂(ding)(ding)(ding)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進,當頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進n節(jie)(jie)工(gong)(gong)具頭(tou)已經(jing)穿過(guo)火炬路,工(gong)(gong)具頭(tou)位置在公路邊坡擋墻下。頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進第n+1節(jie)(jie)管(guan)開始(shi),頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進系統排漿出現(xian)碎(sui)(sui)石(shi),有堵管(guan)現(xian)象發(fa)生(sheng),排漿泵(beng)(beng)(beng)可聽到石(shi)子與葉片撞擊聲(sheng),清理堵管(guan)管(guan)道和從泥漿沉(chen)淀(dian)池中(zhong)撈碴可見碎(sui)(sui)石(shi)(花崗巖),棱(leng)角分(fen)明,此時(shi)千斤頂(ding)(ding)(ding)油泵(beng)(beng)(beng)油壓表明顯增大。若頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進第n+2節(jie)(jie)時(shi),排漿泵(beng)(beng)(beng)被碎(sui)(sui)石(shi)卡(ka)住,則(ze)不能正(zheng)常(chang)工(gong)(gong)作。

為了防止繼續發(fa)生碎石(shi)(shi)(shi)堵(du)(du)(du)管(guan)、堵(du)(du)(du)泵(beng)而損(sun)壞設(she)備(bei),可制作兩(liang)個“碎石(shi)(shi)(shi)攔截箱”,分別安裝在工(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)后和排(pai)漿(jiang)泵(beng)前,利(li)用它攔截排(pai)漿(jiang)管(guan)排(pai)出的(de)(de)碎石(shi)(shi)(shi),同時(shi)采用膨潤土造漿(jiang)、循環泥(ni)漿(jiang)出碴和減緩頂(ding)(ding)(ding)速的(de)(de)方法,防止堵(du)(du)(du)管(guan)和損(sun)壞設(she)備(bei)。從(cong)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin)第n+3節開始,時(shi)有堵(du)(du)(du)管(guan)、堵(du)(du)(du)泵(beng)現象發(fa)生,油(you)泵(beng)油(you)壓(ya)明顯(xian)增大(da)(da),工(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)內(nei)的(de)(de)排(pai)漿(jiang)管(guan)路(lu)被堵(du)(du)(du)塞,通過(guo)正(zheng)反轉、加(jia)(jia)大(da)(da)泥(ni)漿(jiang)比重、循環泥(ni)漿(jiang)等方法,工(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)才重新啟動(dong)、工(gong)(gong)作。碎石(shi)(shi)(shi)對工(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)格(ge)(ge)柵(zha)磨損(sun)嚴重,導致格(ge)(ge)柵(zha)脫落,必須對其維修、加(jia)(jia)固。對工(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)脫落的(de)(de)格(ge)(ge)柵(zha)重新制作安裝后,對其余格(ge)(ge)柵(zha)進(jin)(jin)行(xing)加(jia)(jia)固,由于加(jia)(jia)固后的(de)(de)格(ge)(ge)柵(zha)能夠(gou)很好(hao)地解決碎石(shi)(shi)(shi)問題,保持頂(ding)(ding)(ding)力頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin),頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)最終順利(li)完成施(shi)工(gong)(gong)任務。

(四)為了確保該工(gong)程施(shi)工(gong),頂管作業必須(xu)做到如(ru)下幾點:

1.市政管網核算(suan)最大頂力(li),設計足夠強度和(he)穩定的(de)后座,預先做好(hao)(hao)通過障(zhang)礙(ai)物的(de)各種(zhong)可靠措施(shi),保(bao)證(zheng)開(kai)頂后連續作業,以減少(shao)對列車(che)的(de)干擾(rao)。做好(hao)(hao)扣(kou)軌、扣(kou)梁(liang)工作。

2.管道頂入(ru)路(lu)(lu)基(ji)前(qian),如(ru)需挖去部分邊坡(po),只能與(yu)線路(lu)(lu)架空工作同時進行,不(bu)能提(ti)前(qian)開(kai)挖。開(kai)挖后要有防(fang)護(hu)措施,如(ru)發生路(lu)(lu)基(ji)坍(tan)塌,應及(ji)時堆碼沙包、草袋和回填。涵洞頂進到位后,立(li)即砌筑端翼墻及(ji)護(hu)錐,防(fang)止(zhi)路(lu)(lu)基(ji)塌方。

3.頂(ding)進中(zhong)嚴格控(kong)制超挖(wa)(wa)。頂(ding)管(guan)作業(ye)一(yi)般超挖(wa)(wa)不得(de)超過30 cm,管(guan)下部135°范圍內及管(guan)底部不得(de)超挖(wa)(wa),以(yi)保(bao)持(chi)原狀土的(de)路(lu)基(ji),并按規定保(bao)持(chi)安全(quan)開挖(wa)(wa)坡度,防止塌方。如發生塌方危(wei)及列車安全(quan),應立即(ji)停(ting)止頂(ding)進,根據線路(lu)變化情況降速(su)或封(feng)鎖線路(lu)。

4.要及時測量頂(ding)進(jin)方向(xiang)及高程,隨時進(jin)行(xing)糾偏。對頂(ding)進(jin)過程中的偏差,必須及時發現并(bing)及時糾正,也是頂(ding)管(guan)成功的關鍵。

三、市(shi)政(zheng)給水管線工程質量(liang)監(jian)理

進一(yi)步(bu)理(li)順質量(liang)(liang)管(guan)理(li)體系,提高(gao)(gao)企(qi)業內(nei)部素質,引(yin)(yin)人(ren)社會監(jian)理(li),加強和完善政府監(jian)督機制(zhi)(zhi),加大質量(liang)(liang)監(jian)督的(de)(de)(de)力(li)度;市政管(guan)網進一(yi)步(bu)規范建(jian)設(she)行(xing)為引(yin)(yin)人(ren)競爭(zheng)機制(zhi)(zhi)實行(xing)設(she)計、施(shi)工、監(jian)理(li)招標(biao)投標(biao)制(zhi)(zhi),從制(zhi)(zhi)度上保(bao)證(zheng)工程(cheng)質量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)穩步(bu)提高(gao)(gao);加強對工程(cheng)實施(shi)過程(cheng)中的(de)(de)(de)監(jian)督管(guan)理(li),抓住關(guan)鍵(jian)問題(ti)和重(zhong)要工序,嚴格遵守設(she)計及施(shi)工規范技術(shu)標(biao)準(zhun)控制(zhi)(zhi)質量(liang)(liang)問題(ti)的(de)(de)(de)出現。


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