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市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!

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市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!

發布日期:2016-04-14 10:10 來源:http://gladdchina.cn 點擊:

市政管網之市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!


市(shi)政給(gei)排水管(guan)線施(shi)(shi)工(gong)涉(she)及的因素(su)比(bi)較復(fu)雜,要處理(li)好施(shi)(shi)工(gong)和各種(zhong)城市(shi)生活(huo)的和諧進行(xing),管(guan)道工(gong)程施(shi)(shi)工(gong)要做到盡量(liang)程度的減少(shao)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)對居民生活(huo)、交(jiao)通、工(gong)作的影(ying)響。

一、市政給排水管線工程施工要(yao)點

施(shi)(shi)工方案(an)對(dui)不同(tong)(tong)的管(guan)線(xian)、管(guan)質、管(guan)型和(he)不同(tong)(tong)的路段其側重(zhong)點有所不同(tong)(tong)。針對(dui)不同(tong)(tong)路段,不同(tong)(tong)的地質和(he)環(huan)境情(qing)況,市政(zheng)管(guan)網(wang)應(ying)該制訂不同(tong)(tong)的施(shi)(shi)工方案(an)。市政(zheng)給排(pai)水管(guan)線(xian)施(shi)(shi)工存(cun)在以(yi)下幾種情(qing)形(xing):

(一(yi))開挖施(shi)工。市政管道(dao)穿越市政各種建筑物,為避(bi)免不(bu)必(bi)要(yao)的(de)麻煩(fan),大多沿(yan)路鋪(pu)設。在非主干道(dao)或路邊不(bu)大影響交通的(de)情況下可采用明挖施(shi)工。

(二(er))頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)施工(gong)。市政管(guan)道在跨路施工(gong)開挖(wa)存在影響交通等各方(fang)(fang)面困難時,頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)施工(gong)是一種可行(xing)的方(fang)(fang)案選擇。頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)施工(gong)從考慮(lv)人員在管(guan)道內施工(gong)作業考慮(lv),管(guan)徑一般在0.8m以上,有(you)鋼管(guan)和(he)(he)水泥(ni)管(guan)兩種管(guan)型,市政排污管(guan)多(duo)(duo)用水泥(ni)管(guan),自來水和(he)(he)煤氣管(guan)道多(duo)(duo)用鋼管(guan)。

二、頂管施工技術

頂管(guan)法施工(gong)方法經常用(yong)(yong)于城市市政管(guan)道的建設中,使用(yong)(yong)該方法占地面(mian)積少(shao),施工(gong)控制嚴格(ge),可(ke)保證交通(tong)暢通(tong);在穿越(yue)鐵路(lu)(lu)、公路(lu)(lu)、河(he)流、建筑物等(deng)障礙物時可(ke)減少(shao)沿線的拆遷工(gong)作量,降低(di)工(gong)程造(zao)價。因此,對頂管(guan)施工(gong)技術及其引起的環境(jing)效應進行(xing)深入分析(xi)、探求解決(jue)對策具有重(zhong)要的實(shi)際意義。

(一)頂管(guan)施工的基本原(yuan)理:

頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)施工(gong)(gong)就(jiu)(jiu)是借助于(yu)主(zhu)頂(ding)油(you)缸以及中(zhong)(zhong)繼(ji)間的(de)(de)頂(ding)進(jin)力,把工(gong)(gong)具管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)或頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)掘(jue)(jue)進(jin)機從工(gong)(gong)作坑(keng)內穿過(guo)土(tu)層(ceng)一直頂(ding)進(jin)到接收坑(keng)內吊起。與此(ci)同時(shi),把緊(jin)隨在工(gong)(gong)具管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)或掘(jue)(jue)進(jin)機后的(de)(de)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)道埋設在兩個工(gong)(gong)作坑(keng)之間。在頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)施工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)主(zhu)要有三種(zhong)工(gong)(gong)作面平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)理(li)(li)論(lun):氣壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)、土(tu)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)和泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)理(li)(li)論(lun)。本文主(zhu)要介紹泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)工(gong)(gong)法。泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作原理(li)(li):通常把用(yong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)力切(qie)削(xue)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)土(tu),采用(yong)機械切(qie)削(xue)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)土(tu)而采用(yong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)力輸送棄土(tu),同時(shi)有的(de)(de)利(li)用(yong)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力來平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)地下(xia)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力和土(tu)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力的(de)(de)這一類頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)形(xing)式都(dou)稱為泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)施工(gong)(gong)。在泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)施工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong),要使挖掘(jue)(jue)面上(shang)保持穩定(ding),就(jiu)(jiu)必須在泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)倉中(zhong)(zhong)充滿一定(ding)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力的(de)(de)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui),泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)在挖掘(jue)(jue)面上(shang)可以形(xing)成(cheng)一層(ceng)不(bu)透水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)(de)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)膜(mo),以阻止泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)向挖掘(jue)(jue)面里滲透。同時(shi),該泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)本身又(you)有一定(ding)的(de)(de)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力,因此(ci)它就(jiu)(jiu)可以用(yong)來平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)地下(xia)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力和土(tu)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力,這就(jiu)(jiu)是泥(ni)(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)衡(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)頂(ding)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)最基本的(de)(de)原理(li)(li)。

(二)頂管掘進機(ji)。

頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)前面切割(ge)面安(an)裝有合金滾(gun)(gun)動(dong)滾(gun)(gun)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)及固定刮(gua)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao),刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)座和(he)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)焊(han)(han)接采(cai)用(yong)耐(nai)磨(mo)焊(han)(han)條。市政管(guan)(guan)網滾(gun)(gun)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)及刮(gua)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)在刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)的(de)(de)(de)4把刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)桿上的(de)(de)(de)布置(zhi)(zhi)是(shi)全段面切割(ge)布置(zhi)(zhi),刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)每轉動(dong)一周,滾(gun)(gun)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)和(he)刮(gua)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)對(dui)前面土體(ti)(ti)(ti)是(shi)全段面的(de)(de)(de)滾(gun)(gun)動(dong)和(he)刮(gua)動(dong)。頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)在主頂(ding)(ding)裝置(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)推(tui)動(dong)下(xia),刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)上的(de)(de)(de)滾(gun)(gun)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)尖對(dui)前面堅(jian)硬的(de)(de)(de)土體(ti)(ti)(ti)進行滾(gun)(gun)動(dong)擠(ji)壓,致使堅(jian)硬的(de)(de)(de)土體(ti)(ti)(ti)破(po)裂(lie);刮(gua)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)對(dui)破(po)裂(lie)的(de)(de)(de)土體(ti)(ti)(ti)進行切割(ge),掏空前方土體(ti)(ti)(ti),使頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)向(xiang)前推(tui)進。頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)和(he)泥(ni)土倉是(shi)個多棱體(ti)(ti)(ti),且刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)是(shi)圍繞主軸作偏(pian)心轉動(dong),經(jing)過刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)對(dui)前方土體(ti)(ti)(ti)切割(ge),當有大塊土體(ti)(ti)(ti)或塊石進入(ru)頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)泥(ni)土倉,經(jing)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)(pan)轉動(dong)時就會被軋碎,碎塊泥(ni)土小于頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)隔(ge)柵孔(kong)就進入(ru)泥(ni)水(shui)倉被泥(ni)水(shui)循(xun)環管(guan)(guan)輸送走。

(三)主要(yao)施工(gong)技術措施

1.泥(ni)(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)減(jian)阻(zu)。用(yong)(yong)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)減(jian)阻(zu)是長距離頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)減(jian)少摩阻(zu)力的(de)重(zhong)要(yao)環(huan)(huan)節之一。在頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)施工前,先用(yong)(yong)水(shui)潤(run)濕混(hun)凝土(tu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)材,然后(hou)用(yong)(yong)黃油(you)或機油(you)外涂。在頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)施工過(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong),如果(guo)注(zhu)入的(de)潤(run)滑泥(ni)(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)在管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子的(de)外圍形(xing)成一個比較完整的(de)漿(jiang)(jiang)套,則(ze)其減(jian)磨效果(guo)將(jiang)是十(shi)分令人滿意的(de),補漿(jiang)(jiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)一般(ban)布置(zhi)(zhi)于中(zhong)繼(ji)環(huan)(huan)后(hou)面第(di)二節管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)段及中(zhong)斷環(huan)(huan)與工具(ju)頭及后(hou)座中(zhong)間(jian)的(de)位(wei)置(zhi)(zhi),注(zhu)漿(jiang)(jiang)孔按120°設置(zhi)(zhi)。頂進(jin)結(jie)束,對已形(xing)成的(de)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)套的(de)漿(jiang)(jiang)液進(jin)行置(zhi)(zhi)換,置(zhi)(zhi)換漿(jiang)(jiang)液為水(shui)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)砂(sha)漿(jiang)(jiang)并摻入適量的(de)粉煤灰,在管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)內(nei)用(yong)(yong)單螺桿泵壓住(zhu)。壓漿(jiang)(jiang)體凝結(jie)后(hou)(一般(ban)為24h)拆除管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)路換上封蓋,將(jiang)孔口用(yong)(yong)環(huan)(huan)氧水(shui)泥(ni)(ni)(ni)封堵(du)抹平。潤(run)滑泥(ni)(ni)(ni)漿(jiang)(jiang)用(yong)(yong)壓漿(jiang)(jiang)泵通過(guo)總管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、支管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、球閥(fa)、管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)節上的(de)預留注(zhu)漿(jiang)(jiang)孔壓到管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子與外管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)土(tu)體之間(jian),包住(zhu)下(xia)班鋼(gang)夾(jia)砂(sha)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)。

2.偏心(xin)破(po)碎(sui)頂(ding)進(jin)技術。施工(gong)開(kai)始時頂(ding)進(jin)工(gong)具頭(tou)(進(jin)洞),由千斤頂(ding)頂(ding)進(jin),當頂(ding)進(jin)n節工(gong)具頭(tou)已經穿過火炬路,工(gong)具頭(tou)位置在公路邊坡(po)擋墻(qiang)下(xia)。頂(ding)進(jin)第n+1節管(guan)(guan)開(kai)始,頂(ding)進(jin)系統排(pai)漿(jiang)出現碎(sui)石(shi),有(you)堵(du)管(guan)(guan)現象發生,排(pai)漿(jiang)泵可聽到石(shi)子與(yu)葉片撞擊聲,清理堵(du)管(guan)(guan)管(guan)(guan)道和從泥漿(jiang)沉淀池中(zhong)撈碴可見碎(sui)石(shi)(花崗巖),棱角(jiao)分明,此時千斤頂(ding)油泵油壓表明顯增大(da)。若頂(ding)進(jin)第n+2節時,排(pai)漿(jiang)泵被碎(sui)石(shi)卡住,則不能正常工(gong)作。

為了防止(zhi)繼續(xu)發生(sheng)碎(sui)(sui)石(shi)堵(du)(du)(du)管(guan)(guan)、堵(du)(du)(du)泵(beng)而損壞(huai)設(she)備,可制作(zuo)兩(liang)個“碎(sui)(sui)石(shi)攔截箱(xiang)”,分別安(an)裝在工具頭后和排漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)泵(beng)前,利用它攔截排漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)管(guan)(guan)排出的(de)碎(sui)(sui)石(shi),同時采用膨潤土(tu)造(zao)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)、循環泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)出碴和減緩頂(ding)(ding)速的(de)方法,防止(zhi)堵(du)(du)(du)管(guan)(guan)和損壞(huai)設(she)備。從頂(ding)(ding)進(jin)第n+3節開始,時有堵(du)(du)(du)管(guan)(guan)、堵(du)(du)(du)泵(beng)現(xian)象發生(sheng),油泵(beng)油壓明顯增大,工具頭內的(de)排漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)管(guan)(guan)路(lu)被堵(du)(du)(du)塞,通過(guo)正反轉、加(jia)大泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)比重(zhong)、循環泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)等(deng)方法,工具頭才重(zhong)新(xin)啟動、工作(zuo)。碎(sui)(sui)石(shi)對工具頭格(ge)柵(zha)磨(mo)損嚴(yan)重(zhong),導致格(ge)柵(zha)脫落(luo),必須對其維修、加(jia)固(gu)。對工具頭脫落(luo)的(de)格(ge)柵(zha)重(zhong)新(xin)制作(zuo)安(an)裝后,對其余格(ge)柵(zha)進(jin)行加(jia)固(gu),由(you)于加(jia)固(gu)后的(de)格(ge)柵(zha)能夠很好地解(jie)決(jue)碎(sui)(sui)石(shi)問題(ti),保(bao)持頂(ding)(ding)力頂(ding)(ding)進(jin),頂(ding)(ding)管(guan)(guan)施工最終順(shun)利完成施工任務。

(四)為(wei)了確(que)保該(gai)工程施工,頂管作業必須做到如下幾點:

1.核算最(zui)大頂(ding)力(li),設計足夠強度(du)和穩(wen)定的后座,預先做好通過障礙物(wu)的各(ge)種可靠措施(shi),保證(zheng)開頂(ding)后連續作業,以減少對列車的干擾。做好扣軌、扣梁(liang)工作。

2.管道頂(ding)入路基(ji)(ji)前,如(ru)需挖去部分(fen)邊(bian)坡(po),只(zhi)能與(yu)線路架空工作同時(shi)進(jin)行,不能提前開挖。開挖后要有防護措施,如(ru)發生路基(ji)(ji)坍塌,應及時(shi)堆碼(ma)沙包、草袋和(he)回填。涵洞頂(ding)進(jin)到(dao)位后,立即砌筑端翼墻及護錐,防止路基(ji)(ji)塌方。

3.頂(ding)進(jin)中嚴格控制超(chao)挖。頂(ding)管(guan)作業一(yi)般超(chao)挖不(bu)(bu)得(de)(de)超(chao)過30 cm,管(guan)下部(bu)135°范圍內及(ji)管(guan)底(di)部(bu)不(bu)(bu)得(de)(de)超(chao)挖,市(shi)政管(guan)網以(yi)保(bao)持(chi)原狀(zhuang)土的路基,并(bing)按(an)規定保(bao)持(chi)安(an)全(quan)開挖坡度,防(fang)止(zhi)塌方(fang)。如發生塌方(fang)危及(ji)列車安(an)全(quan),應立(li)即停(ting)止(zhi)頂(ding)進(jin),根(gen)據(ju)線路變(bian)化情況降速或封鎖線路。

4.要及時(shi)測量頂(ding)進方向及高程,隨時(shi)進行糾偏(pian)。對頂(ding)進過程中的偏(pian)差,必須及時(shi)發(fa)現并及時(shi)糾正,也是頂(ding)管成功(gong)的關(guan)鍵。

三、市政給水(shui)管線工程(cheng)質量監(jian)理

進(jin)(jin)一(yi)步理(li)順質量(liang)管理(li)體系,提高(gao)企業內部素質,引(yin)人(ren)社(she)會監(jian)(jian)理(li),加強和完善政府監(jian)(jian)督(du)機制(zhi)(zhi),加大質量(liang)監(jian)(jian)督(du)的力度;進(jin)(jin)一(yi)步規范(fan)建設行為引(yin)人(ren)競爭機制(zhi)(zhi)實行設計(ji)、施(shi)(shi)工、監(jian)(jian)理(li)招(zhao)標投標制(zhi)(zhi),從制(zhi)(zhi)度上保證工程(cheng)質量(liang)的穩步提高(gao);加強對工程(cheng)實施(shi)(shi)過程(cheng)中的監(jian)(jian)督(du)管理(li),抓住關(guan)鍵問(wen)(wen)題和重要工序,嚴格遵守設計(ji)及施(shi)(shi)工規范(fan)技(ji)術標準控制(zhi)(zhi)質量(liang)問(wen)(wen)題的出現。


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